Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is necessary that it have exactly the right quantity of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or within an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas during the past the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to perform is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Due to this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

miscarriage Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss might help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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