Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Should you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you might be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is essential that it have exactly the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage continue to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. pregnancy However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to perform is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood as well the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss might help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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