Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Assuming you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may well be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
miscarriage Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Due to this requirement, tissue that is passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this eventually me again?”. Quite often, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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